There are two ways that television shows can be transformed into films for theatrical release (to be distinguished from television shows that are "inspired" by films, such as "Planet Of The Apes" and "Starman"). The slow and expensive way is to earn enough popularity on television, then make a motion picture for the cinema: some have had critical and box office success (the "Quatermass" films, "The Untouchables", the later "Star Trek" films), others have been bombs (the first "Star Trek" film, "The Twilight Zone").
The quick and cheap method is to take a number of episodes from the original television series, edit them together, and announce them as a film. Generally the home market will see the television series, while the film is released to cinemas overseas and sold as a television movie when the shelf life of the original series has expired. This was first done in the 1960s, with movies from "The Man From U.N.C.L.E." crossing the Atlantic one way as films from "The Saint" travelled the other. In 1979 "Battlestar Galactica" was released as a film in Europe, while America watched the series. In the late 1970s television was expanding rapidly all over the world, with cable and satellite systems soon competing with conventional broadcasting networks. The biggest impact, however, was to be home videos, a ready market to absorb films and television movies.
In 1978 ITC decided that "Space: 1999" could be launched into cinema and television markets as a film compiled from television episodes. The logical choice of episodes were the two parts of "Bringers Of Wonder", which were to become "Destination Moonbase Alpha". Edited by David Withers at ITC in Pinewood, this was released in late 1978. It first appeared on American television in September 1979, and was released onto home video in Britain in September 1980. This film was followed by the ambitious "Alien Attack", composed of the episode "Breakaway" and "War Games", and featuring new scenes filmed at Pinewood by director Bill Lenny. This film was released in 1979. Both films were supported by posters, front-of-house photos and trailers, but neither of the films were widely released to cinema. The only territory that seems to have had a cinema release (of Destination Moonbase Alpha) was Denmark, around 1979 or 1980. The primary market for the compilation films was cable, satellite and video channels.
Meanwhile, at ITC New York, Robert Mandell was planning to edit together films from other ITC television series, including many Anderson series, so that they could be sold to American cable television as "family programming", suitable for transmission at early times. They called their package of films "Super Space Theatre", and decided to create two more "Space: 1999" movies in addition to the two made in London. These two later films, "Cosmic Princess" and "Journey Through The Black Sun", were released in 1982. Although they had access to original music tracks from Barry Gray, the American editors (Cinecontact Inc) had to cut the movies on videotape and to limit them to a maximum of 95 minutes. They are readily distinguishable from the earlier British edited films by the much severer cuts, and the inferior picture quality, with washy colours and indistinct lines. The juvenile titles also indicated the less mature market they were intended for.
When these films were released, the episodes which they were edited from were withdrawn from the series package: stations could then buy only 40 episodes of "Space: 1999", instead of 48. The initial (1992-5) UK video release of the series, for instance, was prevented from including the 8 movie episodes (they were eventually released in 1996). "Bringers Of Wonder" in particular was sold to separate distribution companies, and because of this it has never been seen in Japan (the 2001 DVD release was only 46 episodes).
(1978, running time 96 minutes)
Compiled from "The Bringers Of Wonder" parts 1 and 2.
The film poster, painted by British artist Tom Chantrell, features the title as the tops of huge technological skyscrapers. A Hawk, top right, is firing at the title, causing a huge explosion over it. As large are the main characters, featured in portraits from the waist up, standing over the title. Koenig holds his arms round Maya, while behind him Helena fires a laser. Down the left hand side are various small scenes from the film, with the Moonbase bottom left and an Eagle bottom right.
A narration and scrolling text opens the film, explaining the year is 2100 and showing Moonbase Alpha, a space station sustained by a support system fed by Earth's nuclear waste. The narration explains how the nuclear plant exploded and blasted them into space; "the date-time is now well into the twenty first century." The introduction is well edited, using footage from "Breakaway" plus odd scenes of the characters in "The Metamorph" and "The Exiles", but the text of the narration is at times nonsensical ("Far out into the galaxy of the universe..." it begins). The new music is also good (by Mike Vickers). The end credits are scrolled over various space scenes, ending with shots of the "space brain". This is accompanied by an awful song (composed by Guido and Maurizio de Angelis, sung by the Angelis brothers performing as "Oliver Onions").
The only significant cuts are the introduction to part 2 (Helena's recap of part 1), and the epilogue to part 2 in Command Centre, as Koenig finds all his staff still sleeping.
(1979, running time 105 minutes)
The film poster, again by Chantrell, features various scenes and characters arranged round the title. Top are two Eagles firing at the bomber and causing a large explosion. Left is Helena in her "War Games" robe. Koenig and Alan appear bottom right in head and shoulder portraits, wearing space suits. The faces of the male and female alien watch from top right.
Again there is a narration which lapses into nonsense as it describes how the Command Centre, Moonbase Alpha, uses a support system fed by nuclear waste from Earth, how a ship stands ready to travel to Meta, and that the year is 2100. The narration is shown over clips from later in the episode. There follows a fast paced title sequence, well edited from the original series titles to "Breakaway" and "War Games" (plus odd clips from "Black Sun" and "Missing Link", and the series end titles), with exciting music (Giant's Causeway by Nick Ingman).
The newly filmed segments feature reactions to the events by Patrick Allen, playing the Chairman, at the International Lunar Commission on Earth. The set is a boardroom, with a few instrument panels (from the "UFO" series), a model of the Moon, and some unpainted Airfix model spacecraft (two space shuttles, a Saturn V rocket, an Eagle, and a Starcruiser). The film opens with the first segment, showing Allen announcing he has appointed Koenig commander and Simmonds as "Chief Of Liaison". Then we see (in footage of Koenig's crash from later in the episode, reversed back to front) the crash of Warren and Sparkman's training flight. We then begin the episode.
The next interruption is at the end of Act 2 of "Breakaway", after Koenig's crash. The Chairman and his deputy debate the risk to the Meta probe and agree that the Meta probe must be launched, but the decision is up to Koenig.
The third and final segment appears near the end of "Breakaway", just after the Alphans have watched the news cast and just before they pick up the Meta signals. The Chairman announces Simmonds has died, and that they must devote their resources to the catastrophes that have hit the Earth, with melting polar caps, earthquakes and new tides. He believes the Alphans will survive, and they are on "the greatest probe into space that man has ever known." We then rejoin the episode as Alpha hears the Meta signals.
The final credits are shown with disco music (a track called "Disco Dynamite" by Keith Mansfield) over the same space scenes used for the "Destination Moonbase Alpha" end titles.
Cuts are minimal. "Breakaway" opens on the second scene, showing Nuclear Disposal Area 2 (with the caption). The news cast is edited strangely, cutting references to the new chairman of the Commission and inserting reaction shots of Alphans taken from elsewhere in the episode (including one of Koenig and Victor looking dishevelled through the door of the waste depot monitoring station). "War Games" is uncut.
(1982, running time 91 minutes)
The film poster does not feature the film title. Maya is featured centrally, her arms held up to display her wings. Behind her are two monsters (the Kreno animal and Maya's Beta Cloud creature). Below her are Koenig (his uniform with a red sleeve) firing a laser, with Helena cowering behind him. On the left two astronauts fight, while on the right is an Eagle, seen from head on to show the astronauts in the windows, over Moonbase Alpha.
The title sequence begins with footage of the Breakaway used in the television titles of both series, then shows the Moon in the space warp effect. Computer animation (by Dolphin productions) shows more images of the Moon elongated as in the space warp, then shows clouds in space. The animated credits zoom onto the screen, then into the distance with an audible "whoosh"; first series incidental music accompanies the pictures.
Oddly, first series incidental music is inserted at every quiet moment, and even sometimes at the same time as the original soundtrack.
The speech by the grasshopper alien in "Space Warp" is replaced by new dialogue, sounding very strange and warning other space travellers of how his crew were captured by Mentor on the nearby planet Psychon. His name is now "Vader, commander of the Whills interplanetary star fleet" (a "Star Wars" joke).
The film ends as Koenig's Eagle leaves the refuelling ship. We then see the space scenes from the series end titles, before the film end titles begin. The end titles uses the Year 2 theme music, and the same animated pink captions, zooming into the foreground with a "whoosh".
Numerous, both minor and significant. Early scenes featuring Maya are removed, until her appearance before Koenig as a lion. The epilogues of both episodes are lost, with Helena's status report introduction to "Space Warp". This, plus minor trimming of many other scenes, adds up to about 5 1/2 minutes of material cut.
(1982, running time 89 minutes)
The film poster again does not feature the film title. Bottom is a rather stylised Moonbase Alpha; on the lunar horizon is the Black Sun, and above it the ghostly face of Arra. An Eagle flies over the base on the right. A grid pattern is superimposed over this, following the perspective to the focus in the black sun, but distorted at the edges of it.
The title music consists mostly of electronic bleepings, with odd faint snatches of incidental music from other Anderson series. The crude computer animation shows first a yellow sun approaching, which turns black and eats the title logo. A grid pattern is shown at the bottom of the screen, with wispy clouds beyond, and Atheria moving behind. The animated "black hole" then moves up by the planet, and Moonbase Alpha appears in the foreground, as Helena's status report from "New Adam, New Eve" is heard ("It is as though a strange presence is among us, taking control"). The planet and black hole disappear, replaced by a blue planet top right (from the original shot of the base).
As in "Cosmic Princess", incidental music is added, now often from "UFO", "Joe 90" and other Anderson series.
Koenig's words concluding "Collision Course" are shown over space scenes taken from the series end credits. Arra's "I go to shape the future of eternity. And I need your help." is repeated. Arra's explanation to Koenig about the destiny of man ("Your odyssey shall know no end...") is moved into "Black Sun", being heard by Koenig and Victor as the Moon emerges from the heart of the Black Sun.
The end credits use the Year 1 theme music (played twice, with a rather awkward junction). The credits are shown (again appearing with a "whoosh") over the main part of the opening titles, showing the grid pattern, wispy red clouds, and Atheria moving up beyond. Again, the black hole approaches and stops near the planet. Barry Morse apparently plays "Dr Victor Bergman".
Some severe and inexplicable cutting affects both episodes, particularly the more human scenes that give depth to the characters (Koenig's conversation with Arra is edited and shortened, so that he seems to accept her word more quickly; he appears more dictatorial trying to persuade the command conference about Arra because that scene is also shortened; Victor talking to Kano in the computer room is gone, as are Mathias and Kano playing chess, and Paul playing the guitar). "Collision Course" loses about 6 minutes, while "Black Sun" misses nearly 7 minutes.
Copyright Martin Willey